Modern implantology practices have improved and become more advanced than before. But post-surgery complications still can’t be avoided. Even if the respective dental surgeon uses the bone profiling drill and other instruments accurately, the patients can still have issues like infection, bleeding, swelling, pain, etc.
Complications can cause problems in the successful installation of implants, and in the worst case, can lead to surgery failure. For this reason, it is important to be aware of the key risk factors to keep the complications as low as possible. We have discussed the top risk factors and complications below. Let’s have a look.
Different Risks & Complications of Using Bone Profiling Drills
#1. Effects of Corticosteroid Medication
Corticosteroid medication should only be used within a limit because the immune response is reduced after dental surgery is performed. However, the healing progress directly depends on how much medication is given to the patient. An ideal way of reducing complications in such patients is performing bone grafting 3 months after the corticosteroids are discontinued. If the bone grafting is extensive and swelling is there, even a high dose of this medication shows no negative effects on the healing speed of the wound.
In short, for different situations, the usage of corticosteroid medication varies for reducing complications by addressing the risk factors.
#2. For Diabetic Patients
Hematoma, infection, and severe bleeding are some common complications faced by diabetic patients who undergo dental surgery. Using the bone profiling drill creates space for installing the implant but damages the bone and respective tissues. As wound healing takes a long time in diabetic patients, the chances of infection are very high compared to normal patients.
The key issue with such patients is blood vessel degeneration, that ultimately leads to poor tissue vascularization. As a result, the count of blood vessels in the tissue doesn’t increase according to the required pace. It creates problems in ensuring adequate oxygen and nutrient supply in the tissue. Dental surgeons must keep all these things in mind before the respective procedure.
#3. Effect of Smoking
If the respective patient is a smoker, the chances of issues after implant installation increase. Smoking decreases vascularization which adversely affects the tissue’s microcirculation. Consequently, dehiscence and flap necrosis happens because the bone graft is exposed.
For this reason, symptoms like excessive swelling, temporary paresthesia, inflammation, and more, are evident in patients who smoke. Moreover, the conditions can be worse if the installed implant starts to move from its original place. So, if you already know that the patients are into smoking, tell them to quit it for a few months or avoid it as much as possible.
#4. Bone Systemic Diseases
Osteoporosis is a medical condition that makes the bones brittle and weak. Its negative impacts are also evident on the jaw bones and teeth. When patients who have osteoporosis undergo implant surgery using a bone profiling drill, complications like insufficient graft healing and resorption are common.
However, osteoporosis is not the only cause of such complications. Instead, other side effects of bisphosphonate or corticosteroid therapy may be causing the complications.
#5. For Platelet Aggregation Inhibition
Such inhibitors are used for the prevention of stroke and heart attack. They show their effect on the vascular system, specifically at the arterial part. But, the risk of bleeding is still evident during general surgery with acetylsalicylic acid medication given at a low dose. However, the bleeding can be easily controlled with the help of local methods. The patient can face cardiovascular issues if the acetylsalicylic acid dosage is stopped abruptly. So, dental surgeons should not stop their dosage before the procedure, as it is not mandatory.
#6. Effect of Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy treatment not only destroys the tumor cells but also the nearby healthy ones present in the bone marrow. So, it can cause complications if the jawbone is subjected to radiotherapy. The reason is, the blood vessels degenerate, and the vascularization is reduced, which increases the chances of bone infection. However, by keeping some key points in mind, dental surgeons can reduce complications. For instance, by keeping a gap of a minimum of 1 year between implant surgery and radiation therapy, the risk factor can be considerably minimized.
#7. Quality of Soft Tissue
Soft tissue quality is a major factor that influences implant therapy. To make sure that the installed implant stays in its position for a long time, proper inspection of the area should be performed before surgery. It must be done to check if the implant site has sufficient soft tissue coverage or not. Because the soft tissue may be damaged as a result of tumor resection.
So, covering the bone grafts or implants with a tension-free adaptation may cause problems in the future. If the augmentation fails with biomaterials, the soft tissue gets severely damaged resulting in poor blood circulation.
#8. Effect of Bone Harvesting
Bone harvesting should be done with proper precision and medications for the best results. For instance, the intraoral bone harvesting procedure can be executed with minimum invasion. On top of that hospitalization and local anesthesia are also not required.
Because different donor regions can be utilized in autogenous bone harvesting. In addition, neighboring structures like blood vessels, roots, and nerves should be taken proper care of before and after the procedures. However, it is not possible to eliminate the risk factors, because the complications majorly depend on the donor’s anatomical variation. So, the success of the surgery depends on that.
Dental implant surgeries are a good way to eliminate a lot of problems for patients. But, the respective surgeons should keep in mind that the chances of complications are always there. Due to previous operations, injuries, diseases, and more, the current dental procedure can pose some risks. But by taking the correct preventive measures and following the right techniques, surgeons can reduce the effect of such complications.